An alternate approach to speech synthesis based on numerical solution of Navier-Stokes (NS) and Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations is described. Unlike the traditional methods based on linear acoustic theory, the NS and RANS formulations are not limited by the assumptions of linearity, negligible viscous effects, and plane wave propagation. In the present formulation, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized and solved using a finite difference method. Initial applications involve 2-D simulations of flow through ideal channels (straight or curved tubes). In another application, the formulation is applied to the geometry of the three cardinal vowels. Synthetic speech sounds of encouraging quality are obtained for the three vowels.
Bibliographic reference. Richard, G. / Liu, M. / Snider, D. / Duncan, H. / Lin, Qiguang / Flanagan, James L. / Levinson, Stephen / Davis, D. / Slimon, S. (1995): "Numerical simulations of fluid flow in the vocal tract", In EUROSPEECH-1995, 1297-1300.