First International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 90)
Empirical results in speech perception indicate that the joint influence of stimulus and contextual information is consistent with the independence of these sources of information and inconsistent with interactive processing. Thus, the results appear to be inconsistent with an interactive activation and competition (IAC) model , and consistent with the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP)  . In order to overcome its empirical shortcomings, McClelland (in press) modified the interactive activation to be stochastic rather than deterministic and to use a best one wins (BOW) decision rule. When tested against real data and contrasted with the FLMP, however, the new stochastic IAC (SIAC) model gives a poorer description of the joint influence of stimulus information and context in perception. Interactive activation is both inconsistent with empirical results and not necessary to describe the joint influence of stimulus information and context in language perception.
Bibliographic reference. Massaro, Dominic W. / Cohen, Michael M. (1990): "The joint influence of stimulus information and context in speech perception", In ICSLP-1990, 413-416.