First International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 90)
The purpose of this report is to compare speech which is loud as a consequence of noise exposure (Lombard speech) with speech which is loud deliberately. One male speaker was recorded in six speaking conditions: ambient noise, high noise, and intentionally loud speech, all three recorded with a boom microphone and while wearing an oxygen mask. Lombard speech and deliberately loud speech shared more similarities than differences and appear to result from the same speech production mechanisms. Both were produced with more effort so that energy and fundamental frequency increased. Both were produced with a wider mouth opening so that formants, particularly Fl, shifted. The oxygen mask minimized changes.
Bibliographic reference. Bond, Zinny S. / Moore, Thomas J. (1990): "A note on loud and lombard speech", In ICSLP-1990, 969-972.