ISCA Archive ICSLP 1992 Sessions
  ISCA Archive Sessions

2nd International Conference on Spoken Language Processing

Banff, Alberta, Canada
13-16 October 1992

Continuous Speech Recognition 1, 2

Experiments in continuous speech recognition with a 60,000 word vocabulary
Patrick Kenny, R. Hollan, G. Boulianne, H. Garudadri, Yan-Ming Cheng, Matthew Lennig, Douglas O'Shaughnessy

HMM training on unconstrained speech for large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition
G. Boulianne, Patrick Kenny, Matthew Lennig, Douglas O'Shaughnessy, Paul Mermelstein

Appropriate error criterion selection for continuous speech HMM minimum error training
David Rainion, Shigeki Sagayama

Hardware implementation of realtime 1000-word HMM-LR continuous speech recognition
Akito Nagai, Kenji Kita, Toshiyuki Hanazawa, Tadashi Suzuki, Tomohiro Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Kunio Nakajima, Kiyohiro Shikano, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Shigeki Sagayama, Akira Kurematsu

Design and performance of HARC, the BBN spoken language understanding system
Madeleine Bates, Robert Bobrow, Pascale Fung, Robert Ingria, Francis Kubala, John Makhoul, Long Nguyen, Richard Schwartz, David Stallard

Performance of speaker-independent Japanese recognizer as a function of training set size and diversity
O. Shirotsuka, G. Kawai, Michael Cohen, J. Bernstein

Continuous mixture HMM-LR using the a* algorithm for continuous speech recognition
Kouichi Yamaguchi, Shigeki Sagayama, Kenji Kita, Frank K. Soong

Continuously spoken sentence recognition by HMM-LR
Kenji Kita, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Kazumi Ohkura, Shigeki Sagayama

Word pre-selection using a redundant hash addressing method for continuous speech recognition
Akinori Ito, Shozo Makino

Optimal speech recognition using phone recognition and lexical access
Andrej Ljolje, Michael D. Riley

Natural Language Processing and Speech Understanding 1-3

A trellis-based language model for speech recognition
Nick Waegner, Steve J. Young

PARSEC: a constraint-based framework for spoken language understanding
Carla B. Zoltowski, Mary P. Harper, Leah H. Jamieson, Randall A. Helzerman

The HMM interface with hybrid grammar-bigram language models for speech recognition
G. J. F. Jones, J. H. Wright, E. N. Wrigley

A frame-synchronous continuous speech recognition algorithm using a top-down parsing of context-free grammar
Atsuhiko Kai, Seiichi Nakagawa

Empirical properties of finite state approximations for phrase structure grammars
Fernando Pereira, David Roe

Language modelling for recognition and understanding using layered bigrams
Stephanie Seneff, Helen Meng, Victor Zue

Using probabilistic shift-reduce parsing in speech recognition systems
David Goddeau

Broca, an integrated parser for spoken language
Tim Howells, David Friedman, Mark Fanty

Blank slate language processor for speech recognition
P. V. S. Rao, Nandini Bondale

Integrating two complementary approaches to spoken language understanding
Eric Jackson

Learning compatibility coefficients for word-class disambiguation relaxation processes
Marcello Pelillo, Mario Refice

INTERTALKER: an experimental automatic interpretation system using conceptual representation
Kaichiro Hatazaki, Jun Noguohi, Akitoshi Okumura, Kazunaga Yoshida, Takao Watanabe

Enhancement of ATR's spoken language translation system: SL-TRANS2
Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Toshiyuki Takezawa, Kazumi Ohkura, Masaaki Nagata, Fumihiro Yato, Shigeki Sagayama, Akira Kurematsu

Continuous speech recognition using a combination of syntactic constraints and dependency relationship
Tsuyoshi Morimoto

Automatic learning in spoken language understanding
Roberto Pieraccini, Zakhar Gorelov, Esther Levin, Evelyne Tzoukermann

Speech Synthesis 1-3

Speech segment network approach for an optimal synthesis unit set
Naoto Iwahashi, Yoshinori Sagisaka

ATR μ-talk speech synthesis system
Yoshinori Sagisaka, Nobuyoshi Kaiki, Naoto Iwahashi, Katsuhiko Mimura

On the development of a name pronunciation system
Bert Van Coile, Steven Leys, Luc Mortier

Consonants for female speech synthesis
Inger Karlsson

Diagnostic perceptual experiments for text-to-speech system evaluation
Jan P. H. van Santen

Comparison of natural and synthetic speech intelligibility for a reverse telephone directory service
Marcello Balestri, Enzo Foti, Luciano Nebbia, Mario Oreglia, Pier Luigi Salza, Stefano Sandri

A corpus-based synthesizer
Richard Sproat, Julia Hirschberg, David Yarowsky

High quality speech synthesis based on wavelet compilation of phoneme segments
Tomohisa Hirokawa, Kenzo Itoh, Hirokazu Sato

Inventory of phonetic contrasts generated by high-level control of a formant synthesizer
David R. Williams, Corine A. Bickley, Kenneth N. Stevens

Is % overall error rate a valid measure of speech synthesiser and natural speech performance at the segmental level?
Mikael Goldstein, Ove Till

Text-to-speech conversion for dutch: comprehensibility and acceptability
Willy Jongenburger, Renee van Bezooijen

The rhythm rules in Japanese based on the centers of energy gravity of vowels
Masayo Katoh, Shin'ichiro Hashimoto

Segmental power control for Japanese speech synthesis
Kenzo Itoh, Tomohisa Hirokawa, Hirokazu Sato

Glottal waveform synthesis with volterra shapers
Jean Schoentgen

Yet another rule compiler for text-to-speech conversion?
Ken Ceder, Bertil Lyberg

Prosody generation models constructed by considering speech tempo influence on prosody
Kazuhiko Iwata, Yukio Mitome

Extracting microprosodic information from diphones - a simple way to model segmental effects on prosody for synthetic speech
Alex I. C. Monaghan

Generation of natural sounding speech stimuli by means of linear cepstral interpolation
Arjan van Hessen

Prosodic encoding of syntactic structure for speech synthesis
W. Nick Campbell, Colin Wightman

A nucleus-based timing model applied to multi-dialect speech synthesis by rule
Susan R. Hertz, Marie K. Huffman

Evaluating the prosody of synthesized utterances within a dialogue system
Jill House, Nick Youd

Prosodics in a syllable-based text-to-speech synthesis system
Marcel Tatham, Eric Lewis

From lexicon to rules: toward a descriptive method of French text-to-phonetics transcription
R. Belrhali, Véronique Aubergé, Louis-Jean Boe

Formant transformation from male to female synthetic voices
Marianne Elmlund, Ida Frehr, Niels Reinholt Petersen

Multilingual phoneme to grapheme conversion system based on HMM
P. A. Rentzepopoulos, George K. Kokkinakis

Fundamental frequency control using linguistic information
Noriyo Hara, Hisayoshi Tsubaki, Hisashi Wakita

A comparison of statistical and rule based methods of determining segmental durations
Andrew P. Breen

Generation and extraction of high quality synthesis units
J. R. Andrews, K. M. Curtis, Volker Kraft

Evaluating the overall comprehensibility of speech synthesizers
T. Boogaart, Kim Silverman

Automatic generation of optimized unit dictionaries for text to speech synthesis
Olivier Boeffard, Laurent Miclet, S. White

Relationships between syllable, word and sentence intelligibilities of synthetic speech
Hideki Kasuya, Seiki Kasuya

Unrestricted text-to-speech revisited: rhythm and intonation
David R. Hill, Craig-Richard Schock, Leonard C. Manzara

Wavelet speech synthesizer in the classroom and speech laboratory
Anton J. Rozsypal

HADIFIX - a speech synthesis system for German
Thomas Portele, Birgit Steffan, Rainer Preuß, Walter F. Sendlmeier, Wolfgang Hess

Two different methodologies for evaluating the comprehension of synthetic passages
Cristina Delogu, S. Conte, A. Paoloni, C. Sementina

A target-interpolation model for the intonation of dutch
Carlos Gussenhoven, Toni Rietveld

Speech Recognition 1, 2

Selectively trained neural networks for the discrimination of normal and lombard speech
Yolande Anglade, Dominique Fohr, Jean-Claude Junqua

The use of cohort normalized scores for speaker verification
Aaron E. Rosenberg, Joel DeLong, Chin-Hui Lee, Biing-Hwang Juang, Frank K. Soong

Speaker recognition using concatenated phoneme models
Tomoko Matsui, Sadaoki Furui

Speaker identification through a modular connectionist architecture: evaluation on the timit database
Younes Bennani

AR-vector models for free-text speaker recognition
Claude Montacié, Jean-Luc Le Floch

Rapid non-supervised speaker adaptation of semicontinuous hidden Markov models
Florian Schiel

Rule-based recognition of phoneme classes
D. Ederveen, Louis Boves

A new method of speaker-independent speech recognition using multiphone HMM
Jie Yi, Kei Miki

A speaker adaptation based on corrective training and learning vector quantization
Myoung-Wan Koo, Chong-Kwan Un

Phoneme recognition in continuous speech based on mutual information considering phonemic duration and connectivity
Katsuhiko Shirai, Shigeki Okawa, Tetsunori Kobayashi

A real-time speaker-independent continuous speech recognition system based on demi-syllable units
Shinji Koga, Ryosuke Isotani, Satoshi Tsukada, Kazunaga Yoshida, Kaichiro Hatazaki, Takao Watanabe

Speech recognition in noisy environments
Saeed V. Vaseghi, Ben P. Milner

An enhanced interpolation technique for context-specific probability estimation in speech and language modelling
Fergus R. McInnes

Channel adaptation for a continuous speech recognizer
Lorenzo Fissore, Pietro Laface, G. Micca, G. Sperto

A new algorithm for connected digit recognition
S. Cifuentes, J. Colas, M. Savoji, José M. Pardo

Stochastic modeling of syllable-based units for continuous speech recognition
Günther Ruske, Bernd Plannerer, Tanja Schultz

HARK: an experimental speech recognition system
David M. Goblirsch, Toffee A. Albina

The SSS-LR continuous speech recognition system: integrating SSS-derived allophone models and a phoneme-context-dependent LR parser
Akito Nagai, Jun-Ichi Takami, Shigeki Sagayama

J-SUMMIT: a Japanese segment-based speech recognition system
Shinsuke Sakai, Michael Phillips

Optimal discriminative training for HMMs to recognize noisy speech
Shinobu Mizuta, Kunio Nakajima

Architecture and algorithms of a real-time word recognizer for telephone input
Shingo Kuroiwa, Kazuya Takeda, Fumihiro Yato, Seiichi Yamamoto, Kunihiko Owa, Makoto Shozakai, Ryuji Matsumoto

Speaker independent speech recognition method using word spotting technique and its application to VCR programming
Hiroyasu Kuwano, Kazuya Nomura, Atsushi Ookumo, Shoji Hiraoka, Taisuke Watanabe, Katsuyuki Niyada

Transputer implementation of front-end processors for speech recognition systems
S. Lennon, E. Ambikairajah

Phoneme HMM evaluation algorithm without phoneme labeling
Yasuhiro Minami, Tatsuo Matsuoka, Kiyohiro Shikano

Architecture of a configurable application interface for speech recognition systems
A. Noll, H. Bergmann, H. H. Hamer, Annedore Paeseler, H. Tomaschewski

An interactive environment for speech recognition research
Mark Fanty, John Pochmara, Ron Cole

An approach to unlimited vocabulary continuous speech recognition based on context-dependent phoneme modeling
Y. Abe, K. Nakajima

Acoustic subword models in the berkeley restaurant project
Chuck Wooters, Nelson Morgan

SIRtrain, an open standard environment for CHMM recognizer development
Claus Nedergaard Jacobsen

Segmented trellis algorithms for the continuous speech recognition
Yutaka Kobayashi, Yasuhisa Niimi

A. 46,500 word Chinese speech recognition system
Bo Xu, Z. W. Lin, Taiyi Huang, D. X. Xu, Y. Q. Gao

Study of the time extension flat net for speech recognition
Dao Wen Chen

Speech Production, Parception, and Analysis

Pathological voice analysis using cepstra, bispectra and group delay functions
B. Boyanov, Gérard Chollet

Lateralization of speech sounds by binaural distributing processing
Qianje Fu, Peyu Xia, Ren Hua Wang

Timing of pitch movements and perceived vowel duration
H. H. Rump

Studies of glottal excitation and vocal tract parameters using inverse filtering and a parameterized input model
J. P. Liu, G. Baudoin, Gérard Chollet

Speeded detection of vowels and steady-state consonants
Dennis Norris, Brit van Ooyen, Anne Cutler

Temporal factors in the perception of consonants for different age and hearing impairment groups
Elzbieta B. Slawinski

The role of F3 and F4 in identifying place of articulation for stop consonants
Abeer Alwan

A new measure for perceptual weight of acoustic cues: an experiment on voicing in French intervocalic [t,d]
Thomas R. Sawallis

Objective speech quality assessment in patients with intra-oral cancers: voiceless fricatives
Alan A. Wrench, Mervyn A. Jack, John Laver, M. S. Jackson, D. S. Soutar, A. G. Robertson, J. MacKenzie

Tongue contact, active articulators, and coarticulation
Bruce Connell

Cross-languages differences in the identification of intervocalic stop consonants by Japanese and dutch listeners
Makio Kashino, Astrid van Wieringen, Louis C. W. Pols

Effects of typicality and interstimulus interval on the discrimination of speech stimuli: within-subject comparison
Minoru Tsuzaki

Perceptual studies on vowels excised from continuous speech
Ronald A. Cole, Yeshwant K. Muthusamy

The relative perceptual salience of spectral and durational differences
Raymond S. Weitzman

Can 'level words' from one speaking style become teaks' when spliced into another speaking style?
Florien J. Koopmans-van Beinum

Speech errors and task demand
Beverley Gable, Helen Nemeth, Martin Haran

Analysis of phonation type using laryngographic techniques
John H. Esling, B. Craig Dickson, Roy C. Snell

Effect of prototypes of vowels on speech perception in Japanese and English
Sumi Shigeno

Characteristics of voice picked up from outer skin of larynx
Tomo-o Morohashi, Tetsuya Shimamura, Hiroyuki Yashima, Jouji Suzuki

Coding of voicing in whispered plosives
Igor V. Nabelek

Performance on a nonsense syllable test using the articulation index
Margaret F. Cheesman, Shelly Lawrence, Allison Appleyard

CSRE: a speech research environment
Donald G. Jamieson, Ketan Ramji, Issam Kheirallah, Terrance M. Nearey

Linguistic Phonetics

A study of F0 reset in naturally-read utterances in Japanese
Kazue Hata, Yoko Hasegawa

On the nature of tone sandhi rules in taiwanese
H. Samuel Wang, Fu-Dong Chiu

How shallow is phonology: declarative phonologies meet fast speech
Geoffrey S. Nathan

Analyzing postposition drops in spoken Japanese
Junko Hosaka, Toshiyuki Takezawa, Noriyoshi Uratani

Fundamental frequency patterns of Chinese in different speech modes
Jialu Zhang, Xinghui Hu

The multifarious r-sound
Knut Kvale, Ante Kjell Foldvik

The role of preaspiration duration in the voicing contrast in skolt sami
Zita McRobbie-Utasi

Parameter setting for abstract stress in tokyo Japanese
Eiji Yamada

A method for studying prosody in texts read aloud
Georg E. Ottesen

Linguistic versus phonetic explanation of consonant lengthening after short vowels: a contrastive study of dutch and English
Vincent J. van Heuven

Comparing phoneme and feature based speech recognition using artificial neural networks
Kjell Elenius, Mats Blomberg

Prosodic cues to the perception of syntactic boundaries
Eva Strangert

A new model of intonation for use with speech synthesis and recognition
Paul Taylor, Stephen Isard

Computerized error detection/correction in teaching German sounds: some problems and solutions
Rudolf Weiss

Velum and epiglottis behavior during the production of Arabic pharyngeals and laryngeals: a fiberscopic study
Ahmed M. Elgendy

A prosodic comparison of spontaneous speech and read speech
Kim Silverman, Eleonora Blaauw, Judith Spitz, John F. Pitrelli

Phonological and psychological evidence that listeners normalize the speech signal
John J. Ohala, Maria Grazia Busa, Karen Harrison

Intonation and the request/question distinction
Elizabeth A. Hinkelman

The English voicing contrast as velocity perturbation
Robert F. Port, Fred Cummins

How many phonologies are there in one speaker? some experimental evidence
Michael S. Ziolkowski, Mayumi Usami, Karen L. Landahl, Brenda K. Tunnock

Decomposition into syllable complexes and the accenting of Japanese loanwords
Hirokazu Sato

Temporal structure in bisyllabic word frame: an evidence for relational invariance and variability from standard Chinese
Jianfen Cao

The integration of phonetics and phonology: a case study of taiwanese "gemination" and syllable structure
Shih-ping Wang

Perception and Production

Towards a robust speech interface for teleoperation systems
James H. Bradford

Phonetic recognition experiments with recurrent neural networks
Piero Cosi, P. Frasconi, M. Gori, N. Griggio

Some aspects on context and response range effects when assessing naturalness of Swedish sentences generated by 4 synthesiser systems
Mikael Goldstein, Björn Lindström, Ove Till

Probabilistic prediction of parts-of-speech from word spelling using decision trees
Marcello Pelillo, Franca Moro, Mario Refice

Single word detection system with a neural classifier for recognizing speech at variable levels of background noise
D. Barschdorff, U. Gartner

A rapid semi-automatic simulation technique for investigating interactive speech and handwriting
Sharon Oviatt, Philip Cohen, Martin Fong, Michael Frank

Speech understanding on a massively parallel computer
Sang-Hwa Chung, Dan Moldovan

Rationale for "performance phonology"
Chan-Do Lee

The effect of information feedback on the performance of a phoneme recognizer using kohonen map
Takuya Koizumi, Jyoji Urata, Shuji Taniguchi

A method of dialogue management for the speech response system
Yasuharu Asano, Keikichi Hirose, Hiroya Fujisaki

Syllable duration prediction for speech recognition
Yumi Takizawa, Eiichi Tsuboka

Comparison between two methodologies of testing isolated word speech recognizers
F. Canavesio, G. Castagneri, G. Di Fabbrizio, F. Senia

Extracting fuzzy features from MLP for recognition of speech
He Jun, Henri Leich

A fuzzy partition model (FPM) neural network architecture for speaker-independent continuous speech recognition
Keiji Fukuzawa, Yoshinaga Kato, Masahide Sugiyama

Conception of speech filters based on a neural network
A. Ennaji, Jean Rouat

Speaker set identification through speaker group modeling
Jeff Kuo, Chin-Hui Lee, Aaron E. Rosenberg

Identification of principal ergonomic requirements for interactive spoken language systems
Stephen Springer, Sara Basson, Judith Spitz

Performance of the united kingdom intelligent network automatic speech recognition system
Thomas E. Jacobs, Eric R. Buhrke

Evaluation of parsing strategies in natural language spoken man-machine dialogue
Guy Deville, Pierre Mousel

An information retrieval system with a speech interface
Yasuhisa Niimi, Yutaka Kobayashi

Phoneme performance in speaker recognition
J. P. Eatock, J. S. D. Mason

Natural language processing in the chronus system
Evelyne Tzoukermann, Roberto Pieraccini, Zakhar Gorelov

Contribution of neural networks for phoneme identification in the APHODEX expert system
Dominique Francois, Dominique Fohr

A CSR-NL interface architecture
Douglas B. Paul

Speech interface for a man-machine dialog with the unix operating system
R. Lefebvre, F. Poirier, G. Duncan

Transformation of databases for the evaluation of speech recognizers
P. Bardaud, F. Capman, C. Mokbel, C. Tadj, Gérard Chollet

Dialog management for speech output from concept representation
Yoichi Yamashita, Riichiro Mizoguchi

Speaker verification using locations and sizes of multipulses on neural networks
Seiichiro Hangai, Shigetoshi Sugiyama, Kazuhiro Miyauchi

Word rejection using multiple sink models
Carlos J. Teixeira, Isabel M. Trancoso

Verification of language specific performance factors from recogniser testing on EUROM.1 CVC material
Boerge Lindberg

Modeling task driven oral dialogue
Alain Cozannet

Introducing neural predictor to hidden Markov model for speech recognition
Wei-ying Li, Kechu Yi, Zheng Hu

A neural network based on subnets - SNN
Feng Liu, Jianxin Jiang, Jun Cheng, Kechu Yi


Syntactic anaphora resolution in a speech understanding system
Ute Ziegenhain

The dialog module of the speech recognition and dialog system EVAR
Marion Mast, Ralf Kompe, Franz Kummert, Heinrich Niemann, Elmar Noth

Statistical recovery of wideband speech from narrowband speech
Yan Ming Cheng, Douglas O'Shaughnessy, Paul Mermelstein

Speaker related variability in cepstral representations of dutch speech segments
Henk van den Heuvel, Toni Rietveld

Experiences from a real-world telephone application: teledialogue
Per Rosenbeck, Bo Baungaard

Robust estimation of time-varying LP parameters on speech
K. Y. Lee, P. Ha, J. Rheem, S. Ann, I. Song

On the AR modelling of the one-sided autocorrelation sequence for noisy speech recognition
Javier Hernando, Climent Nadeu, Eduardo Lleida

Robust pitch detection by narrow band spectrum analysis
Hiroshi Shimodaira, Mitsuru Nakai

A microcomputer-based system for real-time analysis and display of laryngograph signals
S. Eady, B. Craig Dickson, Roy C. Snell, J. Woolsey, P. Ollek, A. Wynrib, J. Clayards

Parse scoring with prosodic information
N. M. Veilleux, Mari Ostendorf, Colin Wightman

Topic identification using a neural network with a keyword-spotting preprocessor
Ying Cheng, Paul Fortier, Yves Normandin

Frequency domain speech coding
Shane Switzer, Tim Anderson, Matthew Kabrisky, Steven K. Rogers, Bruce Suter

MEDIATEX-TASF: a closed captioning real-time service in French
Raymond Descout, Robert Bergeron, Bernard Meriald

The wavelet transform for speech analysis
S. A. Wilde, K. M. Curtis

Problems and algorithms in optimal linguistic decoding: a unified formulation
Pablo Aibar, Andres Marzal, Enrique Vidal, Francisco Casacuberta

A spectro-temporal analysis of speech based on nonlinear operators
Jean Rouat, Sylvain Lemieux, Alain Migneault

A PC graphic tool for speech research based on a DSP board
Miguel A. Berrojo, Javier Corrales, Jesus Macias, Santiago Aguilera

A spoken language dialogue system for automatic collection of spontaneous speech
Satoru Hayamizu, Katunobu Itou, Masafumi Tamoto, Kazuyo Tanaka

A powerful disambiguating mechanism for speech understanding systems based on ATMs
Shingo Nishioka, Yoichi Yamashita, Riichiro Mizoguchi

A mixed Gaussian-stochastic code book for CELP coder in LSP speech coding
Najib Naja, Jean Marc Boucher, Samir Saoudi

A method to estimate the transfer function of ARMA model of speech wave using prony method and homomorphic analysis
Hiroyuki Kamata, Yoshihisa Ishida

An integrated dialogue design and continuous speech recognition system environment
Boerge Lindberg, Bjarne Andersen, Anders Baekgaard, Tom Broendsted, Paul Dalsgaard, Jan Kristiansen

The PSH/DISPE helium speech cdrom
Alain Marchal, C. Meunier, P. Gavarry



Word Spotting in ASR

Speech Coding

Speech Production: Coarticulation

Auditory Models

Recognition of Telephone Speech

Text-to-Speech Synthesis 1, 1

Voice Source Characteristics

Speech Perception: Higher-Order Processes 1, 1

Speaker-Independent Word Recognition

Human Factors

Continuous Speech Recognition 1, 2

Natural Language Processing and Speech Understanding 1-3

Language Learning and Acquisition 1, 2

Speech Perception: Units of Processing

Prosody: The Phrase and Beyond 1, 2

Speaker Adaptation

Pronunciation Training

Self-Organizing Systems in ASR 1, 2

Speech Synthesis 1-3

Speech Perception: Phonetic Processes 1, 2

Speech Enhancement

Speech Recognition 1, 2

Hidden Markov Models


Prosody and Phonology 1, 2

Speaking Styles 1, 2

ASR in Noise

Dialogues and Applications

Sampling of Speech Production 1, 2

Labelling of Speech 1, 2

Speech Production: Models and Theories 1, 2


Speech Data Bases

Stochastic ASR

Analysis of Disfluencies in Speech 1, 2

Linguistic Phonetics: Reduction

Hearing/Speech Impaired 1, 2

Unit-Based ASR

Language and Dialect Characterization

Speech Production, Parception, and Analysis

Linguistic Phonetics

Perception and Production