2nd International Workshop on Speech, Language and Audio in Multimedia (SLAM2014)

Penang, Malaysia
September 11-12, 2014

Audio-Concept Features and Hidden Markov Models for Multimedia Event Detection

Benjamin Elizalde (1), Mirco Ravanelli (2), Karl Ni (3), Damian Borth (1), Gerald Friedland (1)

(1) International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA
(2) Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy
(3) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, USA

Multimedia event detection (MED) on user-generated content is the task of finding an event, e.g., a Flash mob or Attempting a bike trick, using its content characteristics. Recent research has focused on approaches that use semantically defined “concepts” trained with annotated audio clips. Using audio concepts allows us to show semantic evidence of their relationship to events, by looking at the probability distribution of the audio concepts per event. However, while the concept-based approach has been useful in image detection, audio concepts have generally not surpassed the performance of low-level audio features like Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) in addressing the unstructured acoustic composition of video events. Such audio-concept based systems could benefit from temporal information, due to one of the intrinsic characteristics of audio: it occurs across a time interval. This paper presents a multimedia event detection system that uses audio concepts; it exploits the temporal correlation of audio characteristics for each particular event at two levels. The first level involves analyzing the short- and long-term surrounding context information for the audio concepts, through an implementation of a Hierarchical Deep Neural Network (H-DNN), to determine engineered audio-concept features. At the second level, we use Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to describe the continuous and non-stationary characteristics of the audio signal throughout the video. Experiments using the TRECVID MED 2013 corpus show that an HMM system based on audio-concept features can perform competitively when compared with an MFCC-based system.

Index Terms: Audio Concepts, Video Event Detection, TRECVID MED, Deep Neural Networks, Hidden Markov Models.

Full Paper

Bibliographic reference.  Elizalde, Benjamin / Ravanelli, Mirco / Ni, Karl / Borth, Damian / Friedland, Gerald (2014): "Audio-concept features and hidden Markov models for multimedia event detection", In SLAM-2014, 3-8.