Intonation: Theory, Models, and Applications
in a sequence of high level tones, downstep is by definition absent and the tonal contribution to F0 movement is minimal. The surface F0 contour therefore is a close approximation of the declination slope, or the declarative sentence intonation. This paper reports experimental results of Mandarin high tones, and concludes that there is a clear declination effect stronger in magnitude than previously reported, which is best modeled as an exponential decay. Futhermore, declination interacts with sentence length and focus.
Bibliographic reference. Shih, Chilin (1997): "Declination in Mandarin", In INT-1997, 293-296.