EUROSPEECH 2001 Scandinavia
The study is a spectral analysis of the vowels and syllabic approximants in Beijing Mandarin. It presents: (i) the average F1, F2, F3 values for the resonant sounds, (ii) the vowel ellipses for the resonant sounds, showing their relative positions in the F1/F2 plane, (iii) the vowel diagrams, showing the F-patterns of the first three formant frequencies of the resonant sounds, (iv) the formant trajectories for the rhotic schwa, showing that the vowel in the V syllables is actually a sequence of a plain schwa and a rhotic schwa, and (v) the diagrams of the average vowel positions for the vowels followed by a nasal ending, showing that the effect of the nasal ending on the F1 and F2 of the vowel sounds varies accoring to vowel type and nasal type.
Bibliographic reference. Zee, Eric / Lee, Wai-Sum (2001): "An acoustical analysis of the vowels in beijing Mandarin", In EUROSPEECH-2001, 643-646.