International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages
Lexical tones use F0 to distinguish between words that are otherwise phonemically identical. Intonation uses F0 to convey discourse, attitudinal and affective information that is often not directly encoded in the words or syntax of the spoken utterances. Because the same acoustic parameter is being used, it is a question how well lexical tones and intonation can coexist in a language. The Parallel Encoding and Target Approximation (PENTA) model proposed here addresses the concurrent transmission of these two aspects of speech in a principled way. As will be demonstrated, the PENTA model can help us better understand both the capacity and limitation of F0 contours in simultaneously conveying meanings carried by tone and intonation.
Bibliographic reference. Xu, Yi (2004): "Transmitting tone and intonation simultaneously - the parallel encoding and target approximation (PENTA) model", In TAL-2004, 215-220.